Plants draw energy from light through a process called photosynthesis, in which green plants utilize sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct.
The light that falls into the blue spectrum has a significant impact on plant growth. Grow lights contain blue tones in them and provide the light plants require for consistent growth.
Humidity levels affect when and how plants open the stomata on the undersides of their leaves. Plants use stomata to transpire. When relative humidity levels are too high, or there is a lack of air circulation, a plant cannot make water evaporate or draw nutrients from the soil. When this occurs for a prolonged period, a plant eventually rots. If surrounded by warm temperatures in low relative humidity levels, transpiration rates in a plant increase, reducing the need for a grower to fertilize it.
3. Root-Zone Temperature
The placing of any root system in a medium above ground increases the surface area from which heat can be gained or lost. This fluctuation in temperature affects root growth. The temperature in the root zone has to fall within an ideal range for both root growth. The plant root does not regulate its temperature, so any variation in the surrounding temperature can affect how the root supplies the top plant.
In a controlled environment agriculture (CEA) setting, the variations become more rapid and intense because of the potential instability of the environment. The higher the fluctuation in temperatures in a 24-hour period, the more stressed the root system becomes. Even the temperature of the irrigation water or nutrient solution will affect root function.
An indoor farm grower will monitor and change both the temperature and the growth medium closely as needed to optimize plant development.
Water transports nutrients from the food source into a plants stem, leaves, flowers, and fruit.
The water travels up a plant through xylem vessels, which move the water into the different parts of the plant. Water helps the plant maintain the proper temperature as the water evaporates. When the moisture evaporates from the surface area, it causes the plant to draw more water up through the roots, to replace what it lost.
Without an adequate water supply in the cells, the plant loses nourishment becomes physically weak, and cannot support its weight. In a controlled setting, growers need both adequate water and a drainage system to create a balanced water supply depending on the type of plant they are growing.
Wind affects plant growth, reproduction, distribution, death, and ultimately plant evolution. Some effects depend on boundaries that reduce or block air flow to the aerial parts of a plant. Where gas and heat exchanges with the environment occur. Wind also affects the plant by damaging its mechanisms (leaves, stem, flowers, roots) by force or friction.
Wind disperses particles such as pollen, plant propagules, and disease organisms, as well as moving gas molecules like CO2 and pollutants. When harnessed in a healthy setting, the wind has a positive impact on plant production and growth. Growers should devise innovative methods to facilitate proper ventilation in indoor environments without the need for mechanical wind production to cut down on operation costs.
Plants build their tissues by using photosynthesis to draw in carbon dioxide from the surrounding air. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) enters the plant through stomata in the leaves and stem, which then transfer gases and water vapor throughout the rest of the plant.
Roots draw the groundwater and transport it to the leaves through the stem. As sunlight falls on the leaf surface, the chlorophyll traps the energy in the water. The conversion of water into energy produces hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide make food for the plant while the stomata release the oxygen.
The entire process of converting water into energy and creating food for the plant would not exist without Carbon Dioxide.
The cornerstone of a plants' growth is Carbon and Oxygen.
Beyond that, the nutrients that a plant draws in through the roots are almost endless: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sulfur, magnesium, boron, chlorine, manganese, iron, zinc, copper, molybdenum, and nickel among other nutrients.
To effectively manage growing conditions in CEA, farmers typically engineer technological systems that adjust the input and output of nutrients and resources to the plants within their indoor environments. Growers apply these systems such as hydroponics to supply the right type of nutrients for a wide range of plants.
Oxygen stimulates plant absorption at the root level. At a molecular level, oxygen transmits nutrients across the cell wall and into the roots.
As growers increase oxygen levels at the root zone, nutrient absorption rises as well as long as all other factors remain intact and in their ideal ranges. Urban farm growers utilize modern technology such as aeroponics and hydroponics to boost plant growth rates by increasing the amount of oxygen available for root.
Temperature is a relative term that implies the relationship between the internal temperature of the plant, the temperature of the surrounding environment, relative humidity, CO2 levels, and the amount of light that affects both the internal and environmental temperatures.
Plant temperature and air temperature are not equal because plants cool off through evaporation and warm up through irradiance. Plants seek to reach their optimal temperature. A balance between air temperature, relative humidity, and light determines if the plant succeeds.
Plants consist of different parts, which all react differently to temperature. The temperature of the fruit is firmly in line with that of the air. The temperature of the flower is higher than air temperature or leaf temperature. Plant temperature at the top of the plant will undergo more substantial fluctuations than that at the root level.
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